I Managing prices
definition of promotion in a dictionary is 'to further progress', 'to rise
to a higher grade', 'to take steps for the passage or formation of'.
Likewise, the very definition of promotion in marketing is 'marketing
activities designed to stimulate the customer’s purchasing needs. It is one
of instruments in the marketing mix that is designed to remind and persuade
customers into buying a product or service.
requires more than the traditionally used promotional schemes. Planning for
personal involvement that can keep the firm in touch with quality customers
is an important tool. The promotional mix encompasses advertisement, public
relations, personal selling and sales promotion.
Approaching potential Buyers
promotion, “Trade mission” has an important role to play. After undertaking
market research and potential buyers are identified, a visit to the market
area is an effective strategy. During the visit, make sure you are equipped
with all-important promotional tools such as:
necessary prepare “product kits” for demonstration purposes. Buyers could be
more convinced when product demonstration is done. When visiting the
potential buyer’s manufacturing location, please dress appropriately.
participation is important, at least
until the business stands on its own feet.
Promotion through Demonstration
want to try and test some products before making purchasing decisions.
Importers prefer that a demonstration program be set to see the quality
features and benefits of the product they plan to buy. In such cases,
demonstrations can be effectively implemented to convince buyers. Consumers
prefer to test that the product they intend to buy is in line with their
expectations in terms of quality, precision and functionality.
demonstration as a promotional tool will be seen from different aspects; and
to this effect a few points will be discussed below. Some people are more
sensitive to what they see and feel in comparison to what they only hear and
demonstrations allow clients to assess the product using all senses.
Distribute samples and brochures during the demonstration.
to make the presentation short and precise. Avoid making it complicated and
difficult to understand and use the buyer’s effectively. During the
presentation it is not all about talking, it is also about listening as
well. Listening to buyer is an asset. Allow the audience to whom you are
demonstrating to ask questions to clear doubts and to express their
expectations and needs.
during demonstrations allow the sales person to understand the potential
customer’s special needs and expectations, which leaves the customer
additionally feeling respected. Besides, your appearance during
demonstration is also important. An appropriately dressed and groomed
presenter grasps the attention of the audience.
to make the presentation personal. Refer to the buyer by his name or that
the company was able to achieve a positive result. The customer should be
given the feeling that you are there to inform him, show him the product,
answer his questions and listen to his opinions. Video or web page promotion
in marketing is becoming popular nowadays and it is becoming more convincing
too. Buyers like to be able to see how manufacturing methods and
arrangements of products work. This type of demonstration is very effective
when it is done for an association, a large company or a group of organized
customers. If the company can afford to provide a videotape that
demonstrates product operations appropriately, then it will undoubtedly make
the presentation effective. People analyse what they see in the videotape or
on the web page.
Demonstrating is common during trade fairs particularly for
manufactured goods. Trade fairs have a large influence in motivating buyers.
It is an important promotional tool and is a means of exposing MSE products
to potential buyers. Organizing trade fairs is expensive and can therefore
only be accomplished with the assistance of MSE business development
organizations. Through trade fair product sampling the product can be
actually seen and operators can meet customers face to face, since, as is
said, "seeing is believing." There could be products of MSEs whose customers
have not yet been ascertained, due to the micro enterprises being mostly
located in squint and distant areas. A trade fair creates a platform for
distributing flyers, brochures and other forms of literature.
also an effective tool and could be a relatively cheaper scheme. In some
cases, sending staff of enterprises to assist in the event could suffice, if
the firm does not have a budget for this.
demonstration pack is a kit that that contains few tools to illustrate or
present the product. Depending on the product intended for presentation, the
demonstration kit can contain:
catalogues/flyers which explain the product’s quality, price, customer
service and means of distribution;
tools such as scales, tensometers, solutions, dolls and anything relevant
to testing the product;
information with video tapes or slides;
testimonial letters as a means of reference;
promotional literature with usage and competitive advantage tips;
motivational materials such as gift products.
Telephone handling is part of
personal selling. When a customer calls and he is confronted with
difficulties in contacting the firm he becomes discontented very rapidly.
Some even conceive the firm as being negligent and unskilled in handling
The telephone has to be
handled efficiently. A telephone that rings for a long time is frustrating
to the customer. More so, if the call is received and the customer is made
to hold online for an extended period it is equally bad. Staff assigned to
answering calls should clearly understand that they are there to assist
callers who are key factors for the company's existence.
Promotion through the Internet
some organizations may not want to use Internet promotion, there are
instances where they will be forced to use them. Once the target audiences
are set, the program can be focused on the target market in a manner that
will interest and attract them. Through Internet usage business
organizations can easily achieve the following:
communication between the company, potential buyers, distributors and
buyers with all relevant sales information;
buyers to order through the network system.
through the Internet is easy and fast. However, it is equally, easy to give
a bad impression and to damage the reputation of a selling company.
Nowadays, business based on the Internet is growing faster than ever. In
relation to telecommunications development the Internet and its mobility
will dominate. By means of the Internet issues such as those mentioned-below
can be discussed and transmitted:
how to get
details of agents and distributors;
required for delivery;
specifications, designs and levels of grade;
of sales conditions;
indicate that access of African countries to the Internet have risen over
the past five years. The figure of 1998 indicates that presently many
African countries have access, among which 44 African countries have full
access in the capital cities.
through Flyer or Brochure
flyer is also an important promotional approach. Although a flyer can be
smaller in comparison to a brochure, it should contain all the important
facts that will help market the product. A flyer has to:
statement is in the content it has to be substantiated. The flyer has to
illustrate the product and its packaging design. Sometimes customers are
good sources of evaluating the flyer before it is printed and distributed.
The need for
having a brochure is higher in international markets in comparison to
domestic markets. The brochure has to entail some sort of creativity, so
that it will attract readers. A brochure has to match international
standards, although issuing a good brochure is expensive. Consumers assume
that, if the brochure has first class resemblance, then product is it too.
should exude confidence to buyers and pass a message that the product is
qualitative and that the company is honest in serving its customers.
One of the objectives of offering a catalogue to a customer is to help him
look into points that can guide him into deciding to buy the product. The
brochure has to:
attractive, informative and easy to read;
customers in seeing what the business looks like.
has to be in the language of the target market and the usage of jargon words
that cannot be understood should be avoided. Adding concrete manufacturing
data that may interest customers are helpful.
that does not explain
functional features and benefits
of the product is ineffective.
Avoid using laudatory
expressions and statements.
that are short of time refer to brochure. Brochures are one of the best
means of promotion, however, it has to be the right brochure. When
considering the high costs of the “first-rate” catalogue, also consider the
issue of saving because it encourages and motivates the audience into
closing sales. The brochure has to consider the following compelling and
important marketing issues:
cover page, company’s name and logo, including testimonials, using photos
and including effective slogans.
visiting the Exporter’s Firm
instances, buyers prefer to visit manufacturing locations before placing an
order because in some cases samples do not tell the truth about mass
production. During the visit, international buyers like to clarify the
following issues for themselves.
discussion with the buyer, the firm should not 'bad mouth' any competitor.
Stressing one’s own capability and superiority is the best strategy to take.
All questions should be answered and they should only leave the enterprise
with a trial sample and a brochure to take reference to.
Office Setting top
Promotion through an
appealing office is a connection of memory between the seller and the buyer.
In addition, office decorations have to be relevant to the business.
Avoiding impertinent office adornments is wise.
Office personality is a
selling strategy. The image of a company's product is advertised by doing
business in a presentable office. A business organization with a
satisfactory working place will be accepted more. The appearance of the
office entrance is critical because foreign customers always get a first
impression as they arrive.
Designing an office is part
of personal selling. The way an office is designed or decorated has an
impact in sales. However, the firm does not need to use expensive furniture,
but presentable ones. It is undesirable to have an office with:
conditions send a message that gives the impression that management is not
at all concerned. In addition, it provides an impression that staff members
have a careless stance towards the business organization. The consequence is
that buyers loose confidence and refrain from doing business with a
management who is not serious towards the total concerns of the business.
Checklist for Promotion
are your promotional measures to approach potential buyers?
dispose of demonstration kits?
participate on trade fairs and expositions?
Consider the advantages of having a trade name and trademark.
Consider packaging aspect?
kind of promotion do your competitors conduct?
you choose a certain promotional approach?
Considering different promotional methods and partners.
you compare the costs of different promotional programs?
your office and factory presentation?
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I Managing prices